# Homepage of Boris Haase

## #16: Extension Oscillations on 13.03.2010

Today, I am certainly in a position to calculate the correct periodic times and to state the error concerning my approximate formula.

It applies: mgh0 = mgh + ½m(ds/dt)2.

With x = x(t) and y = y(t) applies:

T = (8/g)∫(0, s0, (1/(h0-h))½ds) = (8/g)∫(0, x0, ((1+y'2)/(y0-y))½dx) = (8/g)∫(0, t0, ((x.2+y.2)/(y0-y))½dt).

T = 2π((2lh)½/a)½ = 2π((2(1+y'(0)2)3/2y0(1+y'02))½/(gy'0y''(0)½))½ = 2π((2(x.(0)2+y.(0)2)3/2y0(x.02+y.02))½/(gy.0(x.(0)y..(0) - y.(0)x..(0))½))½.

With x = a sin φ, y = b - b cos φ, ds = (dx2+dy2)½ = (a2cos2φ + b2sin2φ)½dφ, k = sin(φ0/2) and ε2 = (a2-b2)/a2 exactly applies for the ellipse pendulum:

T = ((8a2)/(bg))½∫(0, φ0/2, (1 - ε2sin2φ)/(cos φ - cos φ0)dφ).

With ε2 < 1 the calculation of the integral yields the series expansion:

T = (2πa/(bg)½){1 + 1/4 k2 - ε2k2 + 9/64 k4 + 3/8 ε2k4 - 3/4 ε4k4 + O(k6)}.

The series expansion of the approximate formula T = 2πa(1 - ε2sin2φ0)¼/(bg cos(φ0/2))½ reads:

T = (2πa/(bg)½){1 + 1/4 k2 - ε2k2 + 5/32 k4 + 3/4 ε2k4 - 3/2 ε4k4 + O(k6)}.

Both formulas are identical up to the quadratic term as for the mathematical pendulum and confirm the quality of the approximation procedure. To obtain a better approximate formula, y(x) is to develop into a Taylor series around x = 0. For |y'| < 1, then numerator and denominator of the integral can be developed into series and easily be integrated after multiplying them out. Otherwise, the integral can be computed by numerical quadrature or by development of a Taylor series of the integrand with arbitrary precision. The latter is always possible by suitable substitution of x, and sufficient differentiability of the integrand. Interval arithmetic secures the results.

My actual aim was less the calculation of concrete periodic times, but the mathematical reduction of the difficult integration to a relatively easy differentiation (with simple integration). Precisely this yields the just mentioned development of a Taylor series, which is possibly to repeat for separate interval limits.