Lecture 3: "About the reference theory" from 06.03.2010 with small improvements:

substances are the entities that cannot be further broken down analytically. So there is a substance of space and a substance of time. The most important substance is reference. By reference, the substances are virtually cemented. By correlating the time units, one obtains time. If one correlates several successive spatial units, one obtains space. The linear sequence of units distinguishes axes of space and time. Only by altering space, time can be experienced. Although space and time are significantly different from each other, they form together the spacetime. Space and time units may also be referred to as space or time points.

A point has no extent, because it has no form. Several points, however, can build forms. Form presupposes differentness. Points are one and consist of space substance and space unit or time substance and time unit. References are linked to units to distinguish them. The smallest space, nullspace, consists of one point. By correlating several points, the continuum can be established.

Units are generally indivisible, unless they are otherwise defined. The most abstract unit is not substantially further distinguished. By this unit, other substance units can be bound. By continued correlating, finite and infinite continua can be formed from the substances. Since no gaps are formed if they are related, these continua have no gaps. Gaps occur when references are skipped. By appropriately referring, gaps can be filled, for example, by edging units in.

The different referring to substances permits individual experience. Thereby the world may be indeed differently constructed than it is experienced. Only the referring to the substance cause lets causes emerge. Otherwise, proceedings are without cause. By exchanges, movement emerges. At the most basic level, the exchange happens with the same velocity, the so-called ur-velocity. Slower velocities emerge by suspending the exchange. By exchanges over greatest distances, the highest velocities can be attained. Therefore, the velocity of light is not necessarily the greatest velocity.

If there shall be freedom, the lowest level has to be indeterministic. Indeterminism enforces the absence of cause. This can exist at most transitively. Creatures are entities that can set causes. They structure so space and time within the limits of their freedom. Since they are subject to the divine laws, they are not entirely free. Laws are predetermined rules. These rules have been established by L, due to most careful considerations. Not everything is determined by rules: This way, freedoms emerge. However, it is much determined by rules. Thus, desirable and undesirable are brought into a right relationship by L. But this can be only done within the bounds of possibility.

Differences arise only by substances and forms. Only the partial differentness enables the distinction. All rules are characterised by when and then. By forming larger units, complex rules can be set up. There are rules that enable and rules that prevent.

The possibility is associated with the substance can or the abstraction that is to be formed from this modal verb. Necessities correspond to the modal verb must. The substance does not stand for prohibitions. The realisation of the substance not requires comparison. References correspond to the mathematical relations. Relations, however, are based on elements and references of sets to substances and references of substances. The alternative use is based on the structural equivalence of both terms.

L, zis potential and the whole universe are entirely built up of references and substances. References are directed and that means always from the referenced to the referencing. A double reference can be viewed as undirected reference in the sense of graph theory. References always exist. There are no non-existent references. A non-existent reference contains a reference: the reference of non-existence. Both are to be carefully distinguished from each other.

Perception is a relating of substances and references, and of units or compounds constructed from them. The difference of units enables extent, not only spatially. The many is necessary to build up the world. It is not enough just to set references to the substances. The use of compounds or references and substances enables language. Since the assignment needs not to be unique, language becomes complicated, if one often breaks the uniqueness. Perceiving involves relating of compounds for certain other compounds. An ambiguous assignment enables different perception.

Consciousness emerges by reflection. Without reflection there is no consciousness. Reflection is the visualisation of past references, i.e. a relating of the past. The subconscious is also a relating, but not only. There are far more subconscious than conscious processes. They relieve the consciousness. The subconsciousness consists of concurrent processes. Complex life forms have multiple consciousnesses. This applies, for example, to L. Several consciousnesses require multiple subconsciousnesses.

Higher worlds have more than one time axis. The smallest time tacts are an integer divisor of the larger ones. This way different time tacts can be realised. The same is true for different velocities. Our space is not limited to three dimensions. From the space unit, in principle, different or any number of space dimensions can be created. The same applies to the time dimensions.

Building up straight lines and axes of arbitrary substances is called scaling. By scaling different intensities of substances emerge, for example, during the temperature sensation, for the brightness, but also for the volume. In this way, own substance spaces are built up. One must not confuse these substance spaces with the normal substance space corresponding to the substance space.

The realisation of infinite worlds requires the simultaneous access to the infinity by L. This possibility is denied to man. Our world is finite, since finiteness is sufficient for its construction. By inserting additional references, L can increase the number of substances and references at any time, if ze has provided this in the divine order. Our world is an open system, i.e. there enter, at certain points of time, further substances and references into our world that were not there before. In this way, there is always something new to discover.

Life is in principle not bound to the organic chemistry and biology. Decisive is the systemic change in time. In this way, per se inhospitable areas can be colonised. It needs still decades, if not centuries, to realise this. The relationship with L helps to shorten this time significantly.

Reflections on the meaningful, instead on that what is empirically given, help to understand the relationships in our world faster and better. It is ultimately good valuations that constitute the success of science. Valuations are ultimately references of substances. They also express what should be, what may be and what can be. They also express what one would like or wants to be. In this way, the abstraction is well built. One should always be aware of the subjectivity of this abstraction and should not want to set the good absolute. This does not mean that absolute statements cannot be gained. Good science is ultimately based on the good valuations. It is not sufficient to retire on the empirical.

Quality is determined by the how, this in turn by the form. Also the how is a substance term. The decomposition into substances is not unique. Substances imply that anything cannot be defined. The handling often requires using compounds instead of the substances. One can conceive the compound man both as such and as a substance. By properly relating, any compounded becomes more than its parts. The handling requires the restriction to specific initial entities. This avoids the infinite regress.

The reference theory accomplishes much, but it requires precision. It puts an end to the alchemy of philosophy. It may also be a great benefit for you. I hope that the reference theory has brought you important insights and that you can continue to use it in your philosophic, theologic and other scientific thoughts. Thank you for your attention.