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Planned language Lango

Planned Language Lango

Only capital letters are written. In adjectives is the vowel a inserted, in adverbs the vowel e and in prepositions the vowel u and personal pronouns have the vowel of nouns (o in the singular, i in the plural). The latter do not have a sex (also by occupations it is omitted). There are no articles. There is no case (subject-predicate-object-rule). To place the object first, this is preceded with a preposition in case of need. Comparisons of all words are assigned in the positive to the numbers of 1 to 3, in the negative to the numbers of 7 to 5 (see octal clock).

Verbs consist of the stem and inserted time. There is a question, a subjunctive and a passive particle. The tenses are formed as follows: Present (umlaut aj), imperative (in the sentence preceded present), future I (uj), future II (finish particle and future I), past perfect (finish particle and past), past (oj) and perfect (finish particle and present). The directions are read off also from the octal clock and assigned to the numbers. The modal verbs are assigned to the verb to be and to the numbers as follows: Neutral 0, can 1, may 2, like 3, want 4, shall 5, need 6 and must 7.

The words are formed after the languages up to now according to the following rules:
1) Priority is given to the word formation with most speakers,
2) the most frequently used words are the shortest ones - for this purpose for each word maximum lengths are determined and if they are exceeded at the selection, alternatives are searched for,
3) enough gaps are to mind (also for future terms): if the words are too similar (the specified number is exceeded), also alternatives are searched for,
4) at collisions is to switch to rarer languages,
5) similar words that are not derived from each other, must have distinct meanings,
6) there is for the moment only one meaning, as precisely determined as possible, per word,
7) if a word has in a previous language several meanings, so a ranking of the meanings is specified, which determines what meaning gets a chance, if the word is the winner,
8) the order of the determination is: noun, adjective, adverb, verb, remaining lexical categories, i.e. starting from the noun, the remaining lexical categories are determined by specifying for each word the corresponding meaning,
9) diacritics, suprasegmentals, pitches, stress and intonation are not recorded and lead to no difference in meaning (principle of licence of dialect),
10) the standard emphasis is on every second syllable of the word measured from the end.

The vocabulary of the planned language Lango is democratically determined: First, all the words of the existing languages coming into question are filed in a database. To be able to concentrate on the main languages, the language with the most root words is identified. Then, the total population number is divided by the number of root words of the language with the most root words.

Thus one obtains the minimum number of speakers that a language needs to be considered. Proceeding more accurately, also all foreign root words in the language with the most root words are considered. Alternatively, one can divide the total population number by the total number of all meanings.

After the languages are identified to be taken into account, a multilingual dictionary is compiled as a database in that the translations and meanings of all words are located. Then the determined meanings are assigned to fields of daily life in such a way that in each field so many meanings are located as the population divided by the smallest number of speakers to be taken into account indicates.

Then, for each language, the relative frequency of occurrence in the entire vocabulary of the language per (presumable) meaning is determined. To have a uniform, but language individual standard text, the most comprehensive electronic dictionary is employed as basis and first mainstay. Missing records are translated so that each language is represented by the same amount.

As second mainstay texts are taken into account that are of special importance in a language. These texts are weighted by a democratic election of the speakers. For this purpose, a list is created from that each speaker may choose maximum one-tenth. If ze chooses less text, zis choice is weighted proportionally higher.

The third mainstay is the colloquial language. At this, newspapers, magazines, television and radio broadcasts are determined for a representative period with the weighting of their use in the population of speakers of a language. Each mainstay is equally considered. Untranslatable root words are replaced by the most common foreign root word or determined by voting.

The name of the planned language is replaced by the root word for language that accepted the bid. The grammar is determined by a working group in that the members are represented by their strength of languages. It would be nice if my grammar proposed would be taken into account. The same is true for my letters from the font Fonto. The grammar always has priority over the vocabulary: All meanings are processed appropriately to the grammar.

Now, the formation of the vocabulary can start. A field is determined by random generator. A meaning is chosen by random generator. It is chosen first the meaning with the highest number of similarity. This arises from the number of languages resp. number of speakers, accounting for the corresponding root words if one looks only at its similarity between the languages. At equality the random generator decides.

With the number similarity determination the relative frequency of occurrence in the relevant languages is determined concerning the part of the word, after all composites, based on the part of the word, were counted and all inflection forms after the grammar. The frequency is converted into points and multiplied with the word number. The point value is entered for all languages involved.

Now, the language with the most speakers in the languages without points is selected and the meaning is sought with the highest number of similarity. At equality the random generator decides. Calculation is as above. The points are entered and the next important not considered language is processed. The process will continue as long until each language according to its frequency has been adequately considered.

It is ongoing paid attention to the proportional consideration of languages: Where the largest deficits are, will be continued (difference of the actual with the percentage numbers due to). If a field is exhausted, the random generator determines the next one. The surplus percentage points are transferred from the previously handled field.

Languages, whose number of speakers is not enough to be percentally considered in the language groups, are involved anyway: They may suggest words as foreign words that exist only in their language and proper nouns that belong to their language and represent it. The proposals are yet grammatically adapted.

Proper names such as rivers, mountains, places, buildings, etc. are always denoted in the language that most speakers speak in the area in that the object is located. By presence of various languages one proceeds like the main procedure (percental consideration). Personal names are written as the owner or his legal representative intend to. The laws of other states may provide other things: than applies the law.

Each speaker decides among which languages ze wants to be counted (or the legal representative). For this purpose, more comprehensive elections can be held: To choose are all existing languages in descending order according to their number of speakers.

Per language a maximum of five crosses can be made. Additionally one can make a single cross to choose all languages (offered as a single option). The crosses are converted into percentages. Each voter has one vote, what corresponds to 100 %. Then there is the percentage of the total electorate that includes every human being.

Election workers advise the illiterate. Invalid ballots are not counted. Who stays away from the election is also not counted. The electoral process is fair to those that speak more than one language or want to favour languages that they do not speak.

If it comes to conflicts in the definition of the vocabulary, because a word was once already assigned, alternatives within the two words are searched for: first for the new word, then for the old one. In the unlikely event that there are more meanings than corresponding words or root words, either artificial words are to form or meanings to assign to existing words or root words (homonyms). In the latter case, the most common use is awarded the contract.

© 2007-2008 by Boris Haase


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